LINKING in Japanese (AND) – Grammar Help

I will try to show simply how to link adjectives, nouns and sentences in Japanese (using ~くて form, で, と, そして and て) and give examples. The Japanese equivalents of ‘AND’. (There isn’t just one way to say ‘and’ in Japanese like there is in English – There are varying ways to link in Japanese, depending on what is being linked).

Linking Adjectives:

‘i’ adjectives – Drop the end ‘い’ and insert ‘くて’ (kute) to link two adjectives, if the ‘i’ adjective is first.
EG – “The sky is beautiful and bright”  =  “空は 美しくて 明るい です” (Sora wa utsukushikute akarui desu).
‘Utsukushii’ becomes ‘utsukushikute’. ‘Kowai’ would become ‘kowakute’ and so on.

‘na’ adjectives – The form doesn’t change. Simply insert ‘で’ (de) in between the two adjectives you’re linking if the ‘na’ adjective comes first. EG – “The shop is convenient and close”  =  “店は 便利 近い です” (Mise wa benri de chikai desu).

Linking Nouns and Sentences:

To link nouns within a sentence, you use the particle ‘と’ (to) in between the nouns you are linking. It can also act as meaning ‘with’ if you use it after a noun. EG – “I bought an apple and grapes”  =  “りんご ぶどうを 買いました ” (Ringo to budou o kaimashita).

To link complete sentences/clauses you use the word ‘そして’ (soshite), putting in between the two. You can also begin a sentence with this if you wish. EG – “I ate lunch and did homework”  =  ” 昼ごはんを食べました、そして 宿題をしました” (Hirugohan o tabemashita, soshite shukudai o shimashita).

You can also link clauses like that using a more advanced way, the ~て (te) form of verbs. First you need to know how to make the ‘te form’ with verbs, but once you do, you can link clauses by making the form then continuing with your next clause or two, and finish with a form that shows the tense – plain or past. i’ll show how with the same example sentence used above.

EG – “I ate lunch and did my homework”  =  “昼ごはんをたべ、宿題をしました” (Hirugohan o tabete, shukudai o shimashita.

You can also do this multiple times. But remember, the last verb will indicate the tense.

EG – “Tomorrow I will go to work, read a book, and eat in a restaurant”  =  “明日 仕事に 行って、本を 読んで、レストランで食べます” (Ashita shigoto ni itte, hon o yonde, resutoran ni tabemasu).


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